Posted: November 15, 2011 in Assignments
  • Title


Author       : Gordon R. Foxal, Jorge M. Oliveira-Castro, Victoria K. James, M. Mirella Yani-de-Soriano, and Valdimar Sigurdsson

Year             : 2006

  • Theme

Consumer Behavior

  • Background Problem

Analysis of consumer behavior is one of the developments in behavioranalytic tradition of interpreting the behavior of complex, in which certain conceptual framework has been proposed (ie, Model Behavior Perspective). According to consumers, the model behavior occurred at the intersection of consumer behavior and the setting of individual learning history, and consumption is a function of the utilitarian (mediated by the product) and information (mediated by others) consequences. This model has been useful in the analysis of consumers’ brand choices and reactions to different settings. In this paper, the model was applied to the interpretation of environmentally destructive behavior (use of private vehicles, domestic energy consumption, waste disposal, and domestic water consumption). This application refers to a specific marketing strategy to be adopted to modify each class operand.

  • Problem

Whether the brand consumers’ repertoire (repertoire buying patterns as discussed above) associated with levels of utilitarian reinforcement and information offered by brand

  • Destination

To introduce the complexities of interpretation that can not be anticipated by the analysis of behavior-based experiments.

  • Methodology
  • Data & Sample

Purchase data from a sample of 80 consumers buy nine products (ie, baked beans, cookies, breakfast cereals, butter, cheese, fruit juice, instant coffee, margarine, and tea) during the period of 16 weeks. This 80-customer sample randomly selected from a panel (British) national consumer (TNS Superpanel).

  • Tools & Analysis


  • Research model

When consumers are classified into six different groups according to the utilitarian and the information level of the brands they buy mostly (Group 1: Informational Utilitarian Level 1 and Level 1 to Group 6: Informational Level 3 and Utilitarian Level 2), Foxall et al. (2004) found that consumer groups differ with respect to their price elasticity of demand. That is, they differ with respect to how much they change the amount of their purchase as a function of price change brands. Group of consumers who buy most of the brands belonging to the lowest level of utilitarian reinforcement and information (Group 1) and a group that bought most of the brands belonging to the highest levels of utilitarian reinforcement and information (Group 6) showed the lowest elasticity of demand, ie, they showed a decrease in the number of purchased the smallest price increases as a function of the brand. Group 2 (Level 1 and Informational 5 A brand is a product that is produced specifically for retailers and bearing the name of the retailer.Variabel Penelitian

  • Variables

Level of popularity and quality of each brand in the product category.

  • Analysis and results

Utilitarian level identified by additional attributes (eg, plain baked beans baked beans with sausage vs) and / or differentiated product types (eg, digestion cookies4 vs. chocolate chips). In the case of differentiated products, a common brand usually offers several different product formulations, charging different prices for them (eg, digestive cookies are cheaper than chocolate chip cookies for all brands examined). The rating level of reinforcement of information based on the idea that this is closely related to brand differentiation, which in turn is usually also associated with price differentiation. If we compare the degree of brand differentiation, for example, Asda (Wal-Mart) Price © Intelligent and © Kellogg, as a brand produces breakfast cereals, © Kellogg is clearly, better known more differentiated brand cereals.

The rating is based on the information level of reinforcement following general criteria: 1) increase in the prices of all brands for the same product type (for example, baked beans plain or ordinary cornflakes) is considered an indication of differences in the level of information, 2) brands5 cheapest itself (for example, Asda Smart Price ©, © Tesco value, Sainsbury’s economy ©) is considered to represent the lowest level of information (level 1); 3) which does not mention the brand itself is good value for money or economics (eg, © Asda, Tesco ©, Sainsbury ©) and the cheapest is usually considered to represent a specific brand information medium level (level 2), and 4) a special brand, with a higher price (eg, Heinz ©, Nescafe ©), which is supposed to represent the highest level of information (level 3).
The authors classified all the brands in accordance with these criteria and asked for two independent judges to do the same. Level of reliability of this classification is quite satisfactory (more than 70% of the brand across all products and two judges classified under the utilitarian / similar information) (cf. Oliveira-Castro, Foxall & Schrezenmaier, 2005). Based on this classification, Foxall et al. (2004) observed the majority of consumers make 70% or more of their purchases in each category of products in a brand belonging to the same level of information. The authors reported similar findings for the levels of utilitarian reinforcement, in which, for most consumers (with the exception of cookies), 70% or more of the purchases are concentrated in the brand at the same level of utilitarian reinforcement. These results suggest that consumer brand repertoire ‘is selected, at least in part, on the basis of the level of reinforcement and utilitarian information programmed by the brand.

Utilitarian level 2) shows the highest elasticity of demand, which decreased systematically as the number of groups increased (from 2 to 6). The authors also decompose the elasticity of the group as a whole to the intra-brand elasticity (buy in larger quantities than when Brand A is cheaper), Interbrand-elasticity utilitarian (buying smaller quantities than Brand B, which is more expensive than Brand A and offers reinforcement more utilitarian), and Interbrand-elasticity information (buy in small quantities Brand C, which is more expensive than Brand a and offer reinforcement more information).

  • Rekomendasi & Implikasi

In order to develop an efficient strategy for environmental conservation, we need to identify the variables that influence consumer behavior that produces undesirable environmental impacts. Within the framework of this instrumental means, Among other things, examine the consequences that maintain behavior. Only after identifying what events that reinforce and punish for the individual under certain conditions, could be one, based on an instrumental framework, to make specific prediction and intervention plan is reasonable about the behavior the individual. The difference between the consequences of information and utilitarian proposed by the BPM is a step in the direction of identifying what serves as strengthening and punishers for consumers in general. This difference has
useful in analyzing consumer brand choice and verbal responses to different consumer settings. This paper applies the difference to the analysis of some relevant classroom behavior related to environmental conservation, namely the use of personal transport, domestic energy consumption, waste disposal, and domestic water consumption. Each class seems to be maintained by the operand consequences of different levels of information and utilitarian, which shows intervention plan should adopt a different marketing strategy and specific to modify the behavior of each class.



  1. teguh says:

    buat yg lg penelitian/skripsi/tesis/disertasi dan membutuhkan jurnal internasional dari penyedia jurnal ternama seperti springerlink, sciencedirect, jstor, emerald insight, wiley, ieee, pubmed, hinari dsb bisa pesan ke ane. Insya Alloh lgsg dicarikan dan lgsg dikirim ke email, info lengkap cek di atau email di

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